Who were the Jacobites: history and wars –

The story is full of characters and colorful and curious names. One of these is the Jacobites. Don’t you know them? we explain Who were the Jacobites: history and wars that they fought The name takes it from king james ii, a Catholic monarch who was dethroned by his daughter and son-in-law, both Protestants. He started a political movement to restore the House of Stuart in the crowns of Scotland and England.

History of the Jacobites

The early origins of Jacobism you have to look for them in 16th century Englandwhen the king henry viii and her daughter, Elizabeth I, decide face the poperejecting his authority and imposing Protestantism as prevailing in the territory. From this moment, in England, the head of the church will no longer be the Pope of Rome, but the king himself who is in turn head of the Anglican Church along with his daughter.

Scotland and England face each other in the 17th century, in what is known as the Bishops War. Here, the House of the Stuarts, personalized in the figure of Charles I of England, is dethroned and the king beheaded. The Commonwealth is then established, encompassing England, Scotland and Ireland and in the hands of Oliver Cromwell, a military leader and member of the British Parliament.

In 1659 the stuart monarchy with Charles II, and England once again has a Catholic king. And on his death, James II succeeds to the throne, who reigned until he was dethroned in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The monarch had to flee to France and although he had the support of the Irish and part of the Scottish clans, without However, he did not achieve his goals of regaining the crown.

Learn more about the Stuarts:

James II and Jacobism

James II of England was born in London in 1633. The son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France was also King of Scotland and Ireland, in the latter under the nickname of James VII. He also received the titles of Duke of York and Albany. He participated in the Spanish war against England fighting in favor of the Spaniards and when his brother Carlos II came to the throne, he became Supreme Admiral of England. He married the daughter of the Earl of Clarendon, Ana Hyde, and after her death, he decides to convert to the Catholic faith. However, the English Government was not willing to let a Catholic have control of the country and James was gradually excluded from public office.

When his brother dies, James is already king. And it is from then on that he has to put down several rebellions that try to remove him from the throne. Finally, with hardly any support and after being defeated in the Gloriosa, he has to leave the destination country for France, abandoning the throne.

Jacobism wanted to come back to England and the Scottish and Irish territories the catholic monarchy. However, despite all attempts, the ideological, political and military movement always failed after experiencing several uprisings.

Jacobite risings

Within Jacobism we can differentiate up to three rebellions or Jacobite risings. Let’s see the characteristics of each of them.

Jacobist rising of 1715

Before starting the Jacobite rising of 1715 mention must be made of the Guillermite revolt or War that takes place in Ireland. It all begins in 1869 when King James II, with the support of the Irish, moved to this country that at that time was a possession of England. He had the support of French soldiers, but any effort was in vain, since William III of England defeated the Jacobites and consolidated Protestantism in the territory. This happens in the battle of the Boyne, which ends with the exile of James II to France until his death and the triumph of William of Orange.

The Jacobite Rising of 1715 comes a year after the House of Hanover’s accession to the British throne. And it is that from this fact, the revolts become more persistent and the differences between catholics and protestants they intensify making relationships difficult. The uprising of 1715 arises because the Jacobite supporters wanted to restore the House of Stuart in the person of James III, heir to James II. However, the Hanovers were superior and won the uprising, forcing the House of Stuart into exile and with no hope of retaking the throne.

Jacobite rising of 1719

In 1713 the Treaty of Utrecht had been signed. And after losing the support of France, the Stuart House decides to request support from Spain, to help him recover his crown. The monarch obtains the Spanish support and more than seven thousand three hundred Spanish soldiers participated in the Jacobite riots in Wales and Scotland. The movement managed to gain control of London, where James III was crowned. But the joy was short-lived as the Jacobites were defeated by the British at the Battle of Glenshiel in 1719.

Jacobite rising of 1745

It takes place in full War of the Austrian Succession. Louis XV vows to defeat the British Hanoverian monarchy and return the House of Stuart to power. But, in addition to countless setbacks, King Charles found that the civilian population did not want to support the Catholics. After successive attempts to form a prepared group of men willing to fight for the cause, finally the battle of culloden put an end to Jacobite illusions.

It may interest you:

Image Gallery of Who Were the Jacobites: History and Wars: