The Act of Settlement in England in the 18th Century –

The eighteenth century, also called Century of the lights It is characterized by changes and transformations at the economic, political and social levels. It is the century of reason, the encyclopedia and the ideological germ of various transformations that will begin in Europe in the eighteenth century and that will culminate in Europe with the French Revolution. England immersed in the middle of the industrial revolution, with riots and uprisings in its American colonies and with an added problem, a throne without succession. The Act of Settlement in 18th Century Englandtitle of our article, we will know the what is the Act of Establishment, why was it signed or what consequences did it have.

The Act of Establishment in England | What is

The Act of Establishment o Establishment Law. It was an act passed in the Wesminster Parliament in 1701. This act establishes the succession to the Crown of England, to the Protestant family of the Hanover House, linked to the Stuarts thanks to the wedding of María Estuardo, daughter of Jacobo I. María who married Guillermo II of Orange, belonging to the Hannover house.

With this Law, England shielded itself from the arrival to the throne of a Catholic kingthus ensuring the Protestantism of the monarch, thus also ending the claims to the crown of James Francis Stuart, a pretender to the throne of catholic confession who had claimed the throne on the death of Queen Anne I,

Given these claims and having been recognized by the King of France, Louis XIV, as James III. Faced with this situation and because he could have dynastic rights, the new establishment law or Act of Establishment would put an end to his claims.

When Queen Anne Stuart dies as the last of the childless Protestant Stuarts, George of Hanover, automatically becomes the new king of Great Britain and Ireland, he will reign under the name of George I.

The Act of Establishment in England | Background

After the revolution and 1688England entered an era of rapid progress. The internal regime had been attacked: the government of Guillermo III inaugurated a inner calm stage and at the same time of strengthening the position of England in Europe (1689-1702) For the first, the solution of political and religious conflicts contributed very especially, as well as the organization of the succession regime through sanction, in 1701of Establishment Act. It said:

The Act of Establishment in England | The Tudors – Catholic/Protestant

The Tudor House (1485-1603) It begins with Henry VII, of the 7 children of the King only 4 reached the age of majority:

  • Arthur eldest son and Prince of Wales, whom he married to the youngest daughter of the Catholic Monarchs, Catherine of Aragon.
  • Enriquewho would go down in history as Henry VIII, King of England and Lord of Ireland, also married to Catherine of Aragon, from this union would be born Queen Mary I of England, half-sister of Elizabeth I of England.
  • María Tudor, first married to Louis XII King of France and later to Charles Brandon.
  • Margaret Tudor married to James IV King of Scotland, from their union would be born James V, future King of Scotland

After the death of King Henry VII and after the premature death of the Prince of Wales Arthur, his son Enrique will succeed to the throne, who would reign with the title of Enrique VIII.

Henry VIII, the king who broke up with Catholic Churchcreating his own confession of which he was the highest representative, annulling the authority of the Pope of Rome, creating Protestantism.

Everything responded to his obsession with giving a male heir to the crown, Catalina gave him offspring, a girl whom they called María, after repudiating her taking advantage of her new confession, managing to marry up to 6 times. Of these 6 marriages survived:

  • Maria : She would reign with the name of María I – María Tudor, daughter of Catalina de Aragón
  • Isabel : She would reign with the name of Isabel I- Isabel was the daughter of her relationship with Ana Bolena
  • Eduardo : Who would reign under the name of Edward VI – Edward was the son of his relationship with Jane Seymour

A the death of King Henry VIII, he is succeeded by his son Eduardo who would reign with the name of Eduardo VI. But six years after taking the throne of England, Eduardo He dies of a high fever and without offspring.

It is during the reign of Eduardo when the Protestant church created by his father was transformed into a moderate Protestantism, which was called Anglicanism.

When Mary Tudor comes to the throne and without forgetting that she is a woman raised under the Christian doctrine of her mother Catherine, restores Catholicism in England. married to the king Philip II of Spain, became Queen of England, Ireland and queen consort of Spain, but had no offspring.

At the death of Mary Tudor her stepsister succeeds her Elizabeth I. Isabel of a marked Anglican character, far from the Catholic religion, re-establishes Protestantism after the establishment of Catholicism that her stepsister María de Ella had restored.

Elizabeth too died without offspring, now the crown of England was empty. But before Elizabeth died, she left a named heir to the throne, Jacob.

The Act of Establishment in England | The Stuarts – Catholics

The Stuarts will be the reigning house between the years 1603-1714. With the death of Elizabeth I, she is succeeded to the throne by James who will reign under the name of James I of England and IV of Scotland.

James was a descendant of Margaret, sister of Henry VIII. Margaret Tudor had married King of Scotland James IV. From this union 6 children would be born.

  • Jacobo – Dies a year after his birth
  • Arturo – Deceased before the year of birth
  • James – Who will reign at the death of his father as James V, King of Scotland
  • Alejandro – Also Deceased before the year of birth

At the death of the King James IVMargarita Tudor remarries this time with the Earl of Angus, Archibald Douglas VI, from this union shall be born:

  • Margaret Douglas, Margarita managed to be a character of great importance in the history of England, married to Mateo Estuardo, Earl of Lenox, she would be the mother of Henry Stuartwho later became the husband of Queen Mary Stuart of Scotland.

After the death of James IV, The throne of Scotland is succeeded by his son James who will ascend to the throne with the name of James V of Scotland.

James was a man of a strong christian moralityharshly punished any outbreak of Protestantism that might have arisen during his mandate.

Married in second marriage with the French María de Guisa, daughter of Claudio, I Duke of Guise, from this union 3 children were born.

  • Jacobo – Died a few months after birth.
  • Roberto – Died the same day of his birth
  • Maria – Queen of Scotland

Mary would ascend to the throne of Scotland on the death of her father James V What Mary I of Scotland. Married to Francis II, Dauphin of France, she became a widow, returning to Scotland shortly after. When Maria arrives back in Scotland, she finds a town divided on religious grounds. Until now Scotland had remained Catholic but now everything was beginning to change.

He remarried with Henry Stuartwho we remember was the son of the second marriage of Margaret Douglas, daughter in turn of Margaret Tudor, sister of Henry VIII.

Mary lived a truly stormy life, a cousin Elizabeth I of England who wanted Scotland, a jealous, childish and treacherous husband who was capable of both betraying his wife, trying to kill her in order to be king of Scotland, plans that failed and that ended with his murder.

Maria is involved in betrayals by her stepbrother and her husband, the war of religions had been declared and Queen Mary is imprisoned, but not before abdicate on his only son James.

At the death of the Queen Elizabeth I of Englandappoints as heir to the English throne James, son of Mary Stuart and Henry Stuart.

James would reign as James VI of Scotland and I of England, thus becoming the first king of Scotland and England. During his reign, it is worth noting the terrible witch hunt that he carried out and the repression of the Catholic Church.

married to the Princess Anne of Denmark, He had 9 children of whom only 3 reached the age of majority:

  • Henry Frederick – Prince of Glaes
  • Elizabeth – Married to Frederick V pretender to the throne of Bohemia
  • Margarita – Died at two years of birth
  • Carlos – Who will ascend to the throne of England as Charles I.
  • Roberto – Deceased before reaching one year of age
  • María – Died two years after her birth
  • Sofía – Died in the same year of her birth

To these children we had to add two more who were born dead.

At the death of James VIhe is succeeded by his son Carlos, who will reign with the title of King Charles I of England and Scotland. His reign was characterized by tyranny, a kingdom on the fringes of parliament, and despite having married a French and therefore Catholic princess, he did not relax his tension with Christians.

Married to Henrietta Maria of France, sister of King Louis XIII of France, he had 9 children with her:

  • Carlos Jacobo – Died the same day of his birth
  • Carlos – Future King of England
  • Maria – Married to William II of Orange
  • James – He will ascend to the throne with the name of James II of England and VII of Scotland
  • Isabel – Died at 15 years of age
  • Ana – Died at 3 years of age.
  • Catalina – Died the same day of her birth
  • Henry – Died at age 20
  • Henrietta Anne – Married to Philip I of Orleans, brother of King Louis XIV of France

For his tyrannyCarlos I was imprisoned and finally executed, after the death of King Carlos, a period of government with republican overtones was established, called the Commonwealth of England (1649 to 1660).

In 1660 the monarchy is established and its legitimate monarch will be Charles II of England and Scotland. Carlos softened relations with the Catholic Churchbut Carlos died at an early age of stroke, without issue.

Before this tragedy happened his brother Jameswho would ascend to the throne as James II of England and VII of Scotland. Jacobo embraced the Catholic religion, something that had angered his brother Carlos II, who had taken care of educating his nieces, in the Protestant faith.

James married Anne Hyde who was the daughter of the Prime Minister of the King, from this union would be born:

  • Carlos – Died within a year of birth
  • Maria – Future Queen of England as Mary II, married to Prince William III of Orange
  • Jacobo- Died at four years of age
  • Ana – Queen of England as Anne I
  • Carlos – Died within a year of birth
  • Edgardo – Deceased at four years of age
  • Enriqueta – Died in the first year of life
  • Catalina – Died in the first year of life

After several clashes with France the King James is deposedwith the help of his own daughter and son-in-law William II of Orange.

Before the deposition of the king, his daughter Mary ascends the thronewho would reign with the nickname of Mary II, after the glorious revolution that ended the reign of his father, Maria would die of smallpox at the age of 32. Their…