From About History we already talked to you a long time ago about what the incursion of the Civil War into the Mexican Revolution meant, but this time we want to talk to you about all the events that took place in this regard and what its most outstanding characters are. We now explain the Mexican Revolution.
- Mexican Revolution
- the porfiriato
- The outbreak of the Revolution
- Some curiosities of the Mexican Revolution
- The Mexican Revolution in the movies
Francisco “Pancho” Villa at the head of his troops
- The Mexican Revolution has probably been the process historical of greatest importance in the history of Mexico from the conquest Spanish.
- It was a very complex confrontation. Different social groups with demands and objectives very different joined in the rebellion against the Porfiriatothat is, against the government of Porfirio Díaz that was sustained for more than 30 years and with a clear differentiation of classes.
You may be interested in this updated article on Mexico’s declaration of independence at this link.
- Once the first fight against the porfiriatio was won, clashes escalated between the different revolutionary groups. Thus, Mexico was submerged for some ten years in a deep civil war.
Protest in the offices of an anti-Porfirista newspaper in 1903
- The Mexican Revolution started as a rebellion against the control of the country by Porfirio Diaz. The General Porfirio Diaz had assumed power in 1876 in Mexico. Later, he asserted himself uninterruptedly in power through the electoral fraud during decades. This period is known as the Porfiriato, period that was born as a time of prosperity and illusion but soon became a reality in which a large part of the Mexican population suffered the consequences of poverty.
- Thus we can say that at the beginning or early years of the Porfiriato, the Mexican economy consolidated. The main beneficiaries of this were foreign companies, entrepreneurs and landowners (owners of large extensions of Earth). The indigenous communal lands passed into the hands of these landowners. Thus, 5% of the population came to possess 97% of the ownership of the land cultivable.
- During 1908, the conflict was aggravated by the increased mobilization of urban workers and indigenous communities who claimed their land. Certain groups of elite They demanded a democratization of the regime. His main figure was Francisco Madero.
The outbreak of the Revolution:
- In the 1910 elections, again through fraud and violence, Porfirio Díaz won. Log was the opposition candidate, gaining significant support at the polls. The government you imprisonedbut Log managed to flee to Texas (USA) where he elaborated the Plan of San Luis de Potosí. In it, he urged the Mexican people to take up arms and rebel against the Porfiriato regime.
- Log and his followers not only supported the demands of the elite northerner, such as greater political participation. They also knew how to incorporate the demands of the peasantry. Thanks to this, Pascual Orozco Y Pancho Villa (important leaders of the masses of farmers of north), joined forces led by Francisco Madero.
- Defending the peasants’ policies, the growing agrarian movement in southern Mexico joined the uprising. Among them stood out Emiliano Zapata, Leader of the rebels from the area of Morelos.
- he victory for Madero and his allies was swift. They gained control of Chihuahua, Baja California, Veracruz and Ciudad Juárez. On May 21, 1911, the Maderistas and Díaz’s representatives agreed to end the conflict.
- A few days later he resigned dictator diaz and the interim government made a call to elections generals. Log won and became President.
- Thus ended the long domination of the Porfirista regime over Mexican politics. The initial objective of the Mexican Revolution was fulfilled. But the deep socioeconomic conflicts that had come to light during the rebellion against Porfirio Díaz were still present.
- It was thus that the arrival at the presidency of Log It wasn’t the end of the Revolution. Simply opening a new stage. In this new phase of Mexican Revolutionthe different revolutionary groups they entered struggle among themselves, in defense of their particular interests. In our next article we will see how he went through Mexico (from then until 1920) is hard Civil war.
Some facts about the Mexican Revolution
Although we have already spoken a bit in general about the Mexican Revolution, surely there are some very curious facts of which you had no idea and that it may be good that they surprise you to learn a little more about this country.
- -In the Hacienda of Chinameca, place where Emiliano Zapata was betrayed and assassinated, there are still today the traces of the bullets with which the event took place. It is right there, where everything happened that there is a statue called “Caudillo del Sur” that was created by the artist Xerxes Días along with other types of commemorative plaques about what happened. One of them says “Land and freedom”.
- -In the Port of Veracruz, Near the old lighthouse that today is the Museum of the City of Veracruz, you can find some sculptures of the most important characters of the revolution.
- -In morelos, there is a small museum where parts of Emiliano Zapata’s birthplace are exhibited. You will also find photographs and documents of great importance at the time that were key in the Mexican Revolution.
- –In the city of Zacatecas, what would be called “Battle of Zacatecas”, that is why right there, where the hill is, a place called “Plaza de la Revolución” was built, where you can find some statues of those who emerged victorious from there, such as Francisco Villa.
- -In the city of Puebla, on 6th Street in the Historic Center, is what was once the house of the Serdan Brothers. Today it is a Regional Museum of the Revolution where you can see different pieces from the time. This house was important because it was invaded at the time by government forces where the brothers were killed.
- -The canteen called “The opera”a meeting place in the 20th century, still has some bullet wounds on its roof that were given by Pancho Villa when he visited the place in 1914.
- -In the city of Querétaro, you will find the Iturbide Theater also called Theater of the Republic, a place where several historical events took place, such as the promulgation of the Mexican Constitution.
The Mexican Revolution in the movies
As always happens with any contemporary event that profoundly marks the future of a nation, the Mexican Revolution has had a great impact on the cinema. The films that deal with the theme of the Mexican Revolution are especially numerous in the field of national cinema, as it could not be otherwise, but this historical fact has also had a great echo internationally, especially in the United States. Some of these films They have achieved great fame and, although they do not always convey a true image of the conflict, it is still true that they constitute a great resource for understanding this period of Mexican history.
When analyzing these films, it must be taken into account that, according to many scholars, most of the feature films produced in Mexico corresponding to this period have a clear political bias of the type propagandistic, creating national myths that have more points in common with ideas related to the homeland, honor and the struggle to make the nation great than with historical reality. In fact, it is known that since the Lumière brothers sent the first cinematograph to President Porfirio Díaz in 1896 this was used for political purposes. The Mexican Revolution was constantly recorded by the authorities, especially the battles, and some were even reconstructed and choreographed especially for their capture on the big screen.
In the years after the end of the Revolution, the trilogy by Fernando Fuentes recorded in the 1930s stands out, whose films are titled ‘Prisoner 13′, ‘El compadre Mendoza’ and ‘Vámonos con Pancho Villa’‘. These films are also closely linked to the political climate of the moment and, focused on the losing sides of the contest (Zapatismo, Villismo and Huertismo), represent them from a really negative point of view. The first of the three films tells the story of Colonel Julián Carrasco, linked to the Huerta and Porfirista armies. It is a portrait of an authoritarian and cruel man who goes so far as to have his own son executed, despite the fact that he does not know what he is and cannot prevent his death, presenting an alcoholic, abusive and inflexible person who only takes into consideration his own point of view. On the other hand, ‘El compadre Mendoza’ presents the story of a landowner who lives in a comfortable position and who only wants to be left alone, allying himself with both Huertistas and Zapatistas to maintain and even increase his wealth. . The feature film delves into the issue of the need to fight for the country and the punishment that those who believe they can stay on the sidelines and take advantage of the misfortunes of others end up suffering. Lastly, ‘Vámonos con Pancho Villa’, the best known and highest quality film of the trilogy, is based on a homonymous novel by Rafael F. Muñoz and tells the story of six revolutionaries, called ‘The Lions of San Pablo’, who fight under the orders of Pancho Villa in the Northern Division.
During the decades after the Mexican Revolution, the strong censorship who planned on any artistic expression in Mexico avoided viewing works related to this period critical of the official position. Thus, the work of Julio Bracho made in 1960, entitled ‘The Shadow of the Leader‘, based on the homonymous novel by Martín Luis Guzmán, was censored for 30 years, despite enjoying great international acceptance and being awarded at the Karlovy Vary Film Festival. This work is a furious critique of caudillismo and, although the names have been changed, the identification of the different characters with many of the protagonists of the Mexican Revolution and its immediately subsequent period is clear and resounding. Its free viewing was not allowed until the year 1990although it had a great fame in the underground markets and achieved considerable fame abroad.
In the 70’s, In Mexico there was a new wave of cinema related to the Mexican Revolution that presented an increasingly critical point of view, with films like ‘Emiliano Zapata‘, from 1970 or “The Principle”, by Gonzalo Martínez Ortega, to cite just a few examples. In subsequent years, the theme declined, although films related to the events of the Mexican Revolution never stopped being produced for a long time. Thus, in 1997 it premiered…