Korean War –

In our previous article on “The first round of the Cold War” We are talking about the previous conflicts that prompted the beginning of the Korean war. Now it is time to find out what happened once the attack began.

The Korean war it supposed, not only the fragmentation of the state, but also a growing tension between the two Koreas that has reached our days. It only lasted three years, but the balance of casualties is devastating, with more than 3 million deaths among all those involved.

Korean War (1950-1953)

The Korean Peninsula was one of Japan’s most prized possessions. Behind the World War IIin [1945 this area was almost invaded by the USSR and USA. To avoid controversy, they used the 38th parallel as the dividing line between the territories.

This partition became effective with the arrival of the Cold War, since the peaceful unification of the two zones was impossible. A) Yes, Korea became two states almost unexpectedly. The People’s Republic of North Koreaproclaimed in 1948, which was actually a communist dictatorship commanded by Kim Il Sung. On the other hand, in South Korea a dictatorship very favorable to North America was established, with syngman rhee to the head.

Parallel to these events, the Chinese communist revolution victory was achieved in October 1949. This fact changed the geostrategic balance in Asia. And it is that Stalinafter several notorious defeats in Europe, was looking for a victory in Asia and allied with North Korea in the attack on its southern neighbors.

That’s how it started, the June 25, 1950the Korean War. Kim Il Sung’s Army jumped the 38th parallel and swept south korea. Their meager defense only allowed them to hold a limited area in Pusan.

The first attack by the North Koreans was justified by an alleged earlier South Korean attack on the border. The reality is that the Operation pokemonas this first raid was called, had been planned for months.

United States in the Korean War

What no one expected, especially Stalinwas that USA responded to said attack immediately. With the support of the UN, allied with South Korea to respond to the North Korean attack. A support that was facilitated by the absence of the Russian delegate. In protest against the US refusal to accept People’s China, the Russian representative was absent from the UN Council. He was expensive.

The USSR had the right of veto, even blocking, but remained on the sidelines. Or so he said, because clandestinely sent weapons and soldiers. China did not participate in that UN Council. At that time, Taiwan occupied his seat and it remained so until 1971.

Thus, hand in hand General MacArthur, US troops recaptured the stolen ground. Obviously, they did not stay there and on October 19, four months after the war began, they took Pyongyang, the capital of North Korea.

But just before that triumph, Chinese troops had arrived to support the USSR and North Korea. This triple entente mitigated the North American advance and in January 1951 it had already recovered Seoul. McArthur’s response was clear: bombs atomic bombs in north china. President Harry Truman and his Council rejected him, thus avoiding a direct war with the USSR.

In fact, MacArthur was impeached by Truman and Ridway took the American reins in the Korean War. This decision led the USSR to withdraw from the conflict and propose the acceptance of the two systems.

Tie and armistice of Panmunjong

The evenness of the forces at that time facilitated a negotiation that would end in July 1953in the Armistice of Panmunjong. Stalin, who died in March 1953, did not see the signing of that treaty. A treaty that changed, minimally, the line of separation between states, with the 38th parallel as the key.

The balance that the Korean War had left, in little more than half a year, era of tens of thousands dead. They were joined by many other wounded and more refugees. The damage had been devastating and the arrival of powerful countries threatened to multiply the consequences

In fact, until signing the Armistice, there were two years of fighting on the border, in which the number of casualties skyrocketed alarmingly. US air forces massacred North Korea, so the treaty could not be considered peace. No great concessions were made either.. Moreover, the armistice does not mark the end of the war.

Nonetheless, a final ceasefire was achieved between the two Koreas. In addition, military operations were halted and a demilitarized zone was created. All prisoners of war were also repatriated. Nevertheless, in three years of conflictthe final balance of casualties left by the Korean War was absolutely devastating:

  • 3,000 UN soldiers
  • 35,000 United States soldiers
  • 1.5 million South Koreans
  • 1.2 million North Koreans
  • Between 100,000 and 500,000 Chinese soldiers

The worst was yet to come. Throughout the following years, not one bit of progress was made in the disarmament of North and South Korea. This made the border between the two Koreas one of the hottest areas in the world.

Interestingly, this demilitarized zone began to be used as testing ground for the most powerful and modern weapons in the world. Yes, also from weapons nuclearwhich left the demilitarized zone even more devastated.

The fact that North Korea remains a communist regime has led to its being the only cold war in force in the XXI century. In fact, in the demilitarized zone, both Koreas are armed and ready to go into battle at any moment. More than half a century later, the tension between North Korea and South Korea remains simmering.

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