Independence of Mexico: Hidalgo’s campaign –

In Sobrehistoria we now talk about the causes and consequences of the campaign of the priest Hildago in the process of independence from Mexico. A long period of struggle that gave rise to a revolution that was full of proper names like the one we are now explaining to you. then the Independence of Mexico: Hidalgo’s campaign.

Independence of Mexico: Hidalgo’s campaign

The long process of the struggle for Mexico’s independence It was linked -as in other parts of Latin America- with the events in Spain. In 1810 the last Spanish forces of resistance to the French invaders were defeated. The absence of a “legitimate King” in Spain opened the way to the conspiracies of the mexican creoles who long ago wanted to stop being a Suburb.

In Queretaro a group of lawyers, soldiers of the colonial army and small merchants – known as the “queretaro conspirators”- they planned a uprising. The situation escalated when they were discovered.

The Priest Hidalgo -one of the conspirators- called the town of pains to rise up in arms in search of the independence. Hidalgo delivered the famous harangues: “Long live the Virgin of Guadalupe! Long live Ferdinand VII and death to bad government!”. This historical event is known as thePain scream”, with him began the long struggle for the independence of Mexico.

The Revolution of Mexico and the fight of Hidalgo

The Revolution quickly spread to other areas Mexico, where uprisings similar to that of Dolores took place. In the south of the country, for example, a insurrection in charge of another religious, Jose Maria Moreloswhich would later be a key piece in the independence movement.

The first stages of the armed struggle favored the revolutionary troops by Hidalgo and Allende. They took San Miguel and Celaya. Later, they took the Alhóndiga de Granaditas, in Guajanato, in their first formal battle against the royalist army.

They then headed for the capital city. On October 30, 1810, the revolutionaries won the Battle of the Mount of Crosses. However, for strategic reasons they decided not to occupy the Mexico City. Then the leaders split up, Allende will Guanajuato and Gentleman a Guadalajara.

In Guadalajara, Gentleman organized the first revolutionary government, of which he would be the maximum leader. He appointed Ignacio López Rayón (of State) and José Ma. Chico (Grace and Justice) as his ministers. The first government actions were: a agrarian reform who applied to the natives owners of the Earththe abolition of taxes and the declaration of the freedom of slaves.

The realistic offense was gaining power, under the command of Lane. For this reason Hidalgo’s troops headed north. At Puente de Calderón, they suffered a major defeat at the hands of Calleja’s men. the forces of Gentleman they were devastated.

Death of Hidalgo

The forces of the insurgent troops led by Hidalgo or Allende had been greatly diminished due to the last battles, especially the one they lost against the royalist army in Guadalajara. Hidalgo and other revolutionary leaders are forced to flee to Aguascalientes and Zacatecas.

However, the revolutionary leaders are betrayed and arrested four months later. Captured by royalist troops, are taken to Chihuahua. There, the leaders are interrogated and those with religious rank, such as Hidalgo, are stripped of their rank as priests.

After a few days taken prisoner, Hidalgo, Allende and the rest of the leaders are tried by a court and committed to a court martial and considered guilty of treason against the regime and armed uprising. Are sentenced to death.

His execution took place on July 30, 1811 and his head, along with that of other revolutionaries, was hung on pikes in the Granaditas alhóndiga, exhibiting it as a symbol of the repression that any insurgent movement would suffer.

However, the Hidalgo’s death It was not in vain. The Revolution and the process of Independence had been launched. Important victories had been achieved against a Carlist side ruled by betrayals, duels for power and the fear of losing practically all of Latin America, as it would eventually happen.

Today Hidalgo is considered the father of the mexican homelandthe figure who woke up the Mexican people and led the struggle for independence, freedom and autonomy in Mexico.

Important battles during the Hidalgo campaign

Hidalgo’s campaign marked the beginning of insurgent movements throughout Mexican territory. In this first stage there were some battles that would be very important for the development of the independence process:

Battle of Mount of Crosses: It was a battle that took place on the Monte de las Cruces, on October 30, 1810. It was one of the first confrontations between the insurgent troops commanded by Hidalgo and Allende and the troops loyal to the Spanish empire, led by Torcuato Trujillo.

Trujillo, who had had great military successes such as the Battle of Bailén, was entrusted with stopping the insurgent troops that were heading for the capital, after having already taken Valladolid and Toluca. However, the royalist troops were defeated by the more than 80,000 insurgents, who also obtained an important loot in the form of weapons. Despite having defeated the forces defending the capital, Mexico City, for strategic reasons the insurgents did not take the city and decided to withdraw to the Bajío.

Battle of Aculco: It was a battle that took place after the victory of the insurgents in the Monte de las Cruces. Hidalgo and Allende’s troops clashed with the royalist army on a hill near the town of Aculco.

The result of the battle was not the best for the insurgents. Hidalgo and Allende’s troops not only they were forced to retreat because of royalist artillery fire, but they also lost numerous provisions, weapons and, of course, men, more than 200 died and another 600 were taken prisoner. This defeat began to mark the tensions between Hidalgo and Allende, since some sectors of the insurgency did not understand that Hidalgo had decided not to take Mexico City.

Battle of Calderon Bridge: It is the battle that marks the end of the first part of the War. In this contest, the possession of the Calderón bridge, an important access point to the city of Guadalajara, was at stake. The result of the fight was that Hidalgo’s troops (about 100,000 men, most of them unarmed and almost without provisions) were defeated by the royalist troops (60,000 men).

Hidalgo’s independence movement was losing strength, to the point that it would be betrayed by Ignatius Elizondo and captured by royalist troops. He was executed and his head, along with that of Allende and other generals of the insurrection, ended up “exposed” in the Alhóndiga de las Granaditas as a symbol of what would happen to those who joined the independence movement.

After Hidalgo

The death of leaders such as Hidalgo or Allende marks the beginning of the second stage of the Mexican Independence process. During this period, the character who will become the leader of the movement will be Morelosanother priest like Hidalgo, with the same courage and the same ability to lead insurgent troops.

At this time the fight moves to the South of the country, where Morelos obtains important victories against the royalist side. Mexico is heading towards a Declaration of Independence that would arrive in 1813. However, there are still many battles to be fought before Mexico’s independence is effective.

Video about the Independence of Mexico

We leave you with a complete documentary made by Mexican television to commemorate the bicentennial of Mexico’s independence. In this case, the fragment, narrated by the well-known Mexican historian Enrique Krauze, talks about this first phase of independence, with the rebellion of the priest Hidalgo:

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