Ancient Egypt: historical periods –

A journey through Egyptian history, reviewing the historical periods into which it is divided and its most important characteristics.

The History of Egypt Ancient is considered to start after the unification of the Kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt.

The Old Kingdom (2750 – 2250 BC)

It was a model of administrative centralization. The capital was in memphisat the junction between the Bass and the upper egyptnear the present city of Cairo. The pharaoh was responsible for distributing the water and surplus production, administering justice. In addition, he was the military leader and high priest, and he did it through his officials.

The size and wealth of the buildings indicate that it was a time of prosperity for the State and show how the Pharaoh he distanced himself from all other mortals. During this time the pyramids.

The first was the staggered, which consists of a superimposition of mastabas. Then they built the pyramids of remarkable geometric regularity. Khufu, Chephren and Mycerinus on the plateau of gizaarid zone, because the fertile land was strictly reserved for agriculture

The First Intermediate Period (2250 to 2025 BC)

It was a time of disorder and crisis of the State: there were incursions by foreigners, because the kings were unable to defend the borders. There was a government of parallel dynasties, which reigned simultaneously in the Tall and in the lower egypt.

This crisis produced an evident economic decline, because it was not produced in the country nor was it traded abroad. In addition, the decadence was reflected in funerary constructions and in all artistic manifestations. Already at this time the looting of the rich tombs of the previous period began.

In the Middle Kingdom (2025 to 1785 BC)

In this period the monarchical doctrine of the old kingdom in terms of the centralization of the State, but the figure of the pharaoh who approached the people and was concerned, fundamentally, with the administration of justice was humanized.

At the same time individual responsibilities were recovered; the documents of the time indicate the importance of family relationships.

The Second Intermediate Period (1785 to 1570 BC)

It is the most confusing and the least known. It was due especially to the entry of the hyksos, who had conquered the Nile delta. This foreign group was expelled by the Egyptian army, which then conquered Syria, Palestine Y Nubian.

The New Kingdom (1570 to 1070 BC)

With these conquests and the strengthening of royal power began the period called the new kingdomone of the most important of this civilization, which lasted from 1570 to 1070 BC, that is, 500 years of splendor.

It was a time when intense international relations were developed with the Near East and there was important foreign trade with the conquered territories. Religious constructions were expanded and enriched, such as the luxor temples Y karnak. Sculpture and painting reached a remarkable development and have been valuable sources studied by Egyptologists.

Tombs were built carved into the rocks, in the so-called King’s Valley. Despite this cultural richness, the town continued to be submerged in the harsh exploitation that characterized the lives of the Egyptians.

Third intermediate period (1070 to 712 BC)

From the confrontation with the Hittites and with the so-called “peoples of the sea” who came precisely from the Aegeanbegan the decline of new kingdom and there was a third intermediate period (1070 to 712 BC).

The country was ruled by two competing dynasties: there were local rulers and pharaohs originating from Libya. Pharaohs and high priests held power.

Late Late Period (712 to 332 BC),

In a last period, called late (712 to 332 BC), Egypt was invaded by Nubians, Assyrians and Persians.






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